Ôn tập Toefl itp

I.DẠNG 1: TỪ ĐỒNG NGHĨA (16-18 CÂU)

II.DẠNG 2:TÌM TỪ THAY THẾ CHO ĐẠI TỪ (3-5 CÂU)

--Cách nhận biết: “refer to; can be replaced by ”

Example:

• The word “ they” in line 20 refer to?

• The word “ it” in line 25 can be replaced by?

--Cách làm:

B1: Đọc câu hỏi.

B2:Xác định vị trí nội dung hỏi trong bài.

B3:Phân tích công thức:

1. SV0 +TN+ It/they +V+0

2. TN +SV0 , It/they .+V+0

3. SV0 . It/they +V+0

4. SV0 ,(prep) Which (S) +V+0

5. Prep+ 0 ,SV0.Prep +ĐTTT ,SV0

6. SV0 +So That +It/they .+V+0

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 DAY 12/18 
 PHẦN ĐỌC TOEFL ITP 
I.DẠNG 1: TỪ ĐỒNG NGHĨA (16-18 CÂU) 
II.DẠNG 2:TÌM TỪ THAY THẾ CHO ĐẠI TỪ (3-5 CÂU) 
--Cách nhận biết: “refer to; can be replaced by ” 
Example: 
• The word “ they” in line 20 refer to? 
• The word “ it” in line 25 can be replaced by? 
--Cách làm: 
B1: Đọc câu hỏi. 
B2:Xác định vị trí nội dung hỏi trong bài. 
B3:Phân tích công thức: 
1. SV0 +TN+ It/they +V+0 
2. TN +SV0 , It/they..+V+0 
3. SV0 . It/they+V+0 
4. SV0 ,(prep) Which (S) +V+0 
5. Prep+ 0 ,SV0.Prep +ĐTTT ,SV0 
6. SV0 +So That +It/they ..+V+0 
B4: Chọn đáp án giống với một trong những công thức trên. 
 ( Chú ý: nếu phân tích mà không giống với những ct trên ➔ Bỏ qua,khoanh mẹo) 
 EXERCISE 2: 
1.The High Street Market was continuously enlarged throughout the period until 1736 when it reached 
from Front Street to Third. 
-The word ‘it’ in line 1 can be replaced by? 
A.way 
B.High Street Market 
C.period 
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D.Street 
2.As Philadelphia grew from a small town into a city in the first half of the eighteenth century,it became 
an increasingly important marketing center for a vast and growing agricultural hinterland. 
- The word ’it’ in line 1 can be replaced by? 
A.town 
B.city 
C.Philadelphia 
D.Century 
3.Aviculturists, people who raise birds for commercial sale,have not yet learned how to simulate the 
natural incubation of parrot eggs in the wild.They continue to look for better ways to increase egg 
production and to improve chick survival rates. 
-The word ‘they’ in line 2 can be replaced by ? 
A.birds 
B.people 
C.aviculturists 
D.eggs 
4.The legislature gave the company the authority to erect tollgates at points along the road where 
payment would be collected,though it carefully regulated the rates. 
-The word ‘they’ in line 2 can be replaced by? 
A.legislature 
B.copany 
C.authority 
D.road 
5.Many adults, poor and disillusioned with farm life,were lured to the cities by promises of steady 
employment ,regular paycheck,increased access to goods and services,and expanded social 
opportunities.Others were pushed there when new technologies made their labor cheap or wxpendable. 
-The word ‘others’ in line 3 can be replaced by? 
A.adults 
B.payschecks 
C.cities 
D.life 
6. Face masks are commonly used in rituals and performances. They not only hide the real face of the 
mask wearer but they often evoke powerful emotions in the audience – danger, fear, sadness, joy. 
- The word "they" in line 2 refers to 
(A) masks 
(B) rituals 
(C) performances 
(D) emotions 
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III. DẠNG 3:TÌM THUẬT NGỮ ĐƯỢC ĐỊNH NGHĨA (1-3 CÂU) 
--Cách nhận biết: “Term is (not) defined ” 
Example: Which of the following terms is (not) defined in the passage? 
--Cách làm: 
B1: Đọc câu hỏi. 
B2:Xác định vị trí nội dung hỏi trong bài. 
B3: Phân tích công thức: 
1. S,APP,V0 ; APP,SV0 ; SV0, APP 
2. SV0 or 0 ; S+ be+0 ; S+ called +0 
3. N,N ; N--N 
4. N,N +TN+V0/Ved+prep ; N +which/that +be +0 
B4: Chọn đáp án giống với một trong những công thức trên. 
 ( Chú ý: nếu phân tích mà không giống với những ct trên ➔Bỏ qua,khoanh mẹo) 
EXERCISE 3: 
Question1: 
- Aviculturists,people who raise birds for commercial sale,have not yet leared how to simulate the 
natural incubation of parrot eggs in the wild. 
- Nest construction can contribute to this temperature gradient nests of loosely arranged 
sticks,rocks,or dirt are cooler in temperature at the bottom where the egg contacts the nesting 
material. 
- In artificial incubation programs,aviculturists remove eggs from the nests of parrots and 
incubate them under laboratory conditions. 
- Similary ,these boxes should be protected from direct sunlight to avoid high temperatures that are 
also fatal to the growing embryo. 
=> Which of the following terms is defined in the passage? 
A.Aviculturists( line 1) 
B.Gradient(line 8) 
C.Incubation( line 15) 
D.Embryo( line 24) 
Question2: 
- Most sources of illumination generate light over an appreciable period. 
- A photographic emulsion, that is, a light-sensitive coating on photographic film, paper, or glass, 
will, however, record much shorter bursts of light. 
- A photographic flash can therefore be used to capture high-speed movement on film as well. 
- That engulf the room in dense smoke and lead to pictures of dubious quality and odd poses. 
→Which of the following phrases is defined in paragraph 1? 
(A)”appreciable period”(line 1) 
(B)”photographic emulsion”(line 3) 
(C)”high-speed movement”(line 5) 
(D)”odd poses”(line 11) 
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IV.DẠNG4:TÌM THÔNG TIN (16-19 CÂU) 
A.Tìm thông tin có trong bài 
--Cách nhận biết: “According to the passage” 
--Cách làm: 
B1:Xác định câu hỏi và từ khóa( dựa và danh từ riêng và trạng từ chỉ thời gian để xác định nhanh) 
B2:Xác định vị trí nội dung hỏi trong bài (phải đọc hết câu chứa nội dung hỏi) 
• Nếu nội dung hỏi nằm ở đầu câu thì câu tìm nằm ở cuối câu và ngược lại 
• Nếu nội dung hỏi nằm trọn vẹn trong một câu thì ta tìm câu trước hoặc câu sau. 
• Nếu nội dung hỏi nằm ở cuối đoạn thì ta đọc câu trước đó. 
B3:Tìm những từ là “Adj, N, Adv ,Prep ”trước và sau nội dung hỏi so với đáp án,đáp án nào giống nhất ta 
chọn.. 
B.Tìm thông tin không có trong bài 
--Cách nhận biết: 
• which of the followingnot ; All of the following.except 
• which.is not mentioned ; Trueexept 
--Cách làm: Giống với 3 bước trên 
Chú ý: 
 Nếu 3 đáp án xuất hiện ➔chọn đáp án không xuất hiện 
 Nếu cả 4 đáp án cùng xuất hiện ➔không làm 
 EXERCISE 4: 
 Questions 11-22: 
Aviculturists, people who raise birds for commercial sale, have not yet learned 
how to simulate the natural incubation of parrot eggs in the wild. They continue 
to look for better ways to increase egg production and to improve chick survival rates. 
 When parrots incubate their eggs in the wild, the temperature and humidity of the 
(5) nest are controlled naturally. Heat is transferred from the bird's skin to the top portion 
of the eggshell, leaving the sides and bottom of the egg at a cooler temperature. This 
temperature gradient may be vital to successful hatching. Nest construction can 
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contribute to this temperature gradient. Nests of loosely arranged sticks, rocks, or dirt 
are cooler in temperature at the bottom where the egg contacts the nesting material. 
(10) Such nests also act as humidity regulators by allowing rain to drain into the bottom 
sections of the nest so that the eggs are not in direct contact with the water. As the 
water that collects in the bottom of the nest evaporates, the water vapor rises and is 
heated by the incubating bird, which adds significant humidity to the incubation 
environment. 
(15) In artificial incubation programs, aviculturists remove eggs from the nests of parrots 
and incubate them under laboratory conditions. Most commercial incubators heat the 
eggs fairly evenly from top to bottom, thus ignoring the bird's method of natural 
incubation, and perhaps reducing the viability and survivability of the hatching chicks. 
When incubators are not used, aviculturists sometimes suspend wooden boxes outdoors 
(20) to use as nests in which to place eggs. In areas where weather can become cold after 
eggs are laid, it is very important to maintain a deep foundation of nesting material to 
act as insulator against the cold bottom of the box. If eggs rest against the wooden 
bottom in extremely cold weather conditions, they can become chilled to a point where 
the embryo can no longer survive. Similarly, these boxes should be protected from 
(25) direct sunlight to avoid high temperatures that are also fatal to the growing embryo. 
Nesting material should be added in sufficient amounts to avoid both extreme 
temperature situations mentioned above and assure that the eggs have a soft, secureplace to rest. 
 13. According to paragraph 1, when the temperature of the sides and bottom of the egg are cooler than 
the top, then ? 
(A) there may be a good chance for successful incubation 
(B) the embryo will not develop normally 
(C) the incubating parent moves the egg to a new position. 
(D) the incubation process is slowed down 
15. According to paragraph 2, the construction of the nest allows water to ? 
(A) provide a beneficial source of humidity in the nest 
(B) loosen the materials at the bottom of the nest 
(C) keep the nest in a clean condition 
(D) touch the bottom of the eggs 
16. All of the following are part of a parrot's incubation method EXCEPT ? 
(A) heating the water vapor as it rises from the bottom of the 
(B) arranging nesting material at the bottom of the nest 
(C) transferring heat from the parent to the top of the eggshell 
(D) maintaining a constant temperature on the eggshell 
20. According to paragraph 3, a deep foundation of nesting material provides ? 
(A) a constant source of humidity 
(B) a strong nest box 
(C) more room for newly hatched chicks 
(D) protection against cold weather 
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V.DẠNG 5:DẠNG CÂU HỎI TÌM Ý CHÍNH (5 CÂU) 
Chú ý: “ Đây là dạng khó trong đề thi,chủ yêu dành cho những bạn thi mốc cao dạng này cần dịch 
hiểu,vì vậy phương pháp làm bên dưới chỉ áp dụng cho những câu dễ ,và áp dụng tốt cho những bạn xác 
định đúng N...” 
--Cách nhận biết : 
• Mainly discuss/answer/about 
• Main point 
-Vị trí :Rơi vào câu đầu mỗi đoạn 
--Cách làm: 
B1:Xét danh từ ở đáp án ( N tùy ý) không xét danh từ chữ in hoa nếu cả 4 đáp án đều có. Nếu có 2 
hoặc 3 đáp án có N chữ in hoa giống nhau ta xét bình thường. 
B2: 
• Nếu 4 đáp án không có N nào giống nhau ta nhìn câu đầu đoạn 1 
• Nếu 2 đáp án giống nhau trở lên ta nhìn câu đầu đoạn cuối. 
B3: Đáp án nào giống nhiều, giống cả cụm ta điền. 
➔Khi làm bài:Ta làm lần lượt theo thứ tự từ dạng 1 đến dạng 5. 
• Ai thi mức 450điểm cần làm chắc chắn 12-18câu. 
• Ai thi mức 500điểm cần làm chắc chắn từ 18 -26 câu. 
 Sau đó khoanh mẹo duy nhất 1 đáp án B hoặc C. 
 EXERCISE 5: 
Questions 42-50: 
 Plants are subject to attack and infection by a remarkable variety of symbiotic species and have 
evolved a diverse array of mechanisms designed to frustrate the potential colonists. These can be 
divided into preformed or passive defense mechanisms Line and inducible or active systems. Passive 
plant defense comprises physical and chemical barriers that prevent entry of pathogens, such as 
bacteria, or render tissues unpalatable or toxic to the invader. The external surfaces of plants, in 
addition to being covered by an epidermis and a waxy cuticle, often carry spiky hairs known as 
trichomes, which either prevent feeding by insects or may even puncture and kill insect larvae. 
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Othertrichomes are sticky and glandular and effectively trap and immobilize insects.If the physical 
barriers of the plant are breached, then preformed chemicals may inhibit or kill the intruder, and plant 
tissues contain a diverse array of toxic orpotentially toxic substances, such as resins, tannins, 
glycosides, and alkaloids, many of which are highly effective deterrents to insects that feed on plants. 
The success of the Colorado beetle in infesting potatoes, for example, seems to be correlated with its 
hightolerance to alkaloids that normally repel potential pests. Other possible chemical defenses, 
while not directly toxic to the parasite, may inhibit some essential step in the establishment of a 
parasitic relationship. For example, glycoproteins in plant cell walls may inactivate enzymes that 
degrade cell walls. These enzymes are often produced by bacteria and fungi. 
 Active plant defense mechanisms are comparable to the immune system of vertebrate animals, 
although the cellular and molecular bases are fundamentally different. Both, however, are triggered 
in reaction to intrusion, implying that the host has some means of recognizing the presence of a 
foreign organism. The most dramatic example of an inducible plant defense reaction is the 
hypersensitive response. In the hypersensitive response, cells undergo rapid necrosis—that is, they 
become diseased and die—after being penetrated by a parasite; the parasite itself subsequently ceases 
to grow and is therefore restricted to one or a few cells around the entry site. Several theories have 
been put forward to explain the basis of hypersensitive resistance. 
42. What does the passage mainly discuss? 
 A.The success of parasites in resisting plant defense mechanisms 
 B.Theories on active plant defense mechanisms 
 C.How plant defense mechanisms function 
 D.How the immune system of animals and the defense mechanisms of plants differ 

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