Nghệ thuật lãnh đạo - Chapter 2: The global and cultural contexts

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

Understand the role culture can play in leadership

Describe the three levels of culture

Discuss the model of national culture

Identify the impact of gender on leadership

Discuss the role diversity plays in leadership


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stics Group members learn about their culture through their parents and family, schools, and other social institutions, and consciously and unconsciously transfer it to the young and new members. Culture affects how people view the world and how they think, and therefore, shapes behavior. Levels of Culture Culture exists at three levels: National Culture: a set of values and beliefs shared by people within a nation. Group Culture: different cultural, ethnic, and religious groups lead to cultural diversity (variety of human structures, belief systems, and strategies for adopting to situations that exist in different groups. Organizational Culture: a set of values, norms and beliefs shared by members of an organization Impacts of Culture National culture exerts a strong and pervasive influence on people’s behavior in everyday activities and in organizations. The influence of organizational culture is, generally, limited to work-related values and behaviors. National culture strongly influences organizational culture. All three levels of culture shape views and expectations of leaders. Each country and region in the world develops a particular organizational and management style based largely on its national culture. Chapter 2 2.2- Models of National Culture 1. Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Cultures Edward Hall’s model, divides communication styles within cultures into two groups: high context and low context (Hall, 1976). Context refers to the environment and the information that provide the background for interaction and communication. Leaders from high-context cultures rely heavily on the context, including nonverbal cues and situational factors, to communicate others and understand the world around them. They use personal relationships to establish communication. Leaders from low-context cultures focus on explicit, specific verbal and written messages to understand people and situations. 1. Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Cultures 2. Hofstede’s Five Cultural Dimensions 3. Tigh and Loose Cultures Harry Triandis (2004): uncertainty avoidance be classified into tigh or loose categories. In tigh cultures, members follow rules, norms, and standards closely. Behaviors are, therefore, closely regarded; those who do not abide by the rules are criticized, isolated, or even ostracized, depending on the severity of the offense. Loose cultures show much tolerance for behaviors that are considered acceptable, and although rules exist, violating them is often overlooked. 4. Vertical and Horizontal Dimensions of Individualism and Collectivism 5. Trompenaars’s Cross-Cultural Organizational Cultures Fons Trompenaars: cross-cultural organizational cultures can be classified on two dimensions (Trompenaars, 1994): Egalitarian-hierarchical and Orientation to the person or the task. 5. Trompenaars’s Cross-Cultural Organizational Cultures 5. Trompenaars’s Cross-Cultural Organizational Cultures Incubator Cultures are egalitarian and focus on taking care of individual needs. Leaders in such organizations emerge from the group rather than being assigned. Therefore, leadership is based on competence and expertise, and the leader’s responsibility is to provide resources, manage conflict, and remove obstacles. The Guided Missile is also egalitarian culture, but focus on task completion rather than individual needs. In guided-missile organizations, leadership is based on expertise and follower participation is expected. People work in teams of professionals who have equal status, with performance being the primary criterion for effectiveness. 5. Trompenaars’s Cross-Cultural Organizational Cultures The Eiffel Tower cultures is hierarchical and task focused. It is characterized by a steep, stable, and rigid organization. The focus is on performance through order and obedience of legal and legitimate authority. The leader is the undisputed head of the organization and has full responsibility for all that occurs. The Family Culture is hierarchical and take care of individuals. The family culture functions like a traditional family. The leader’s role is that of a powerful father figure, who is responsible for the welfare of all members. 6. Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research (GLOBE) Conducted by a group of researchers in 62 countries (House et al., 2004) GLOBE examines culture using 9 dimensions. GLOBE assumes that culture affects what leaders do and how organizations are structured and managed. GLOBE identifies several categories of leader behavior: Charismatic/ value-based leadership is generally desirable across most cultures. Team-based leadership is believed to contribute to outstanding leadership in many cultures. Participative leadership is seen, generally, as positive, its effectiveness depends on the culture. Autonomous leaders are desirable in some cultures but not in all. Self-protective leadership is seen as impeding effective leadership in most cultures. 6. Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research (GLOBE) Chapter 2 2.3- Group Culture Group Culture Group culture may consist of a number of primary factors such as gender, ethnicity, and age and other secondary factors such as income, education, and membership in various groups. Dimensions of Group Culture and Diversity Dimensions of Group Culture and Diversity The primary dimensions of diversity are the visible and stable aspects of a person. Factors that are considered secondary are more dynamic. Group culture can affect people in 2 important ways: People’s leadership style may vary based on their group membership; Membership in those groups impacts how others view the person and therefore how they may react to leadership from that person. Gender and leadership 1. Web Structure: Leaders in hierarchical web structures are at the center rather than at the top. This structure, and their position within it, allows them to be accessible and informed. Whereas top-down and bottom-up information in traditional hierarchy is filtered and altered as it travels, leaders at the center of the web gain direct access to all others in the organization, and their employees have access to them. The web structure prevents from feeling isolated and out of touch with the needs of their subordinates and their organization. Gender and leadership 2. Non command and Control Use of Power: Having power means that you must be willing to not have any (Sellers, 2004) 3. Business Ranking “That’s a non female thing to do. Ranking is the opposite of what women are about” (Sellers, 1998: 80)  focus on mentoring other women and helping them balance family and work (Weiss, 2006) 4. Job Oriented “You don’t focus on being female – you focus on getting the job done. If you draw too much attention to your gender, you’re not a member of the team” (Overholt, 2001: 66) Potential Causes of Poor Representation of Women in Leadership Gender differences in leadership style and effectiveness Such as communication styles, negotiation styles and effectiveness Women tend to show more people-oriented and democratic styles (whereas men were more likely to be task focused and autocratic) Transformational leadership  focuses on establishing an emotional connection with followers and inspiring them toward implementing change, showing more individualized attention to their followers, and being more supportive. Potential Causes of Poor Representation of Women in Leadership Women have less experience in organizations Women are generally not as well prepared as men to take on leadership roles. Women have less work experience and are less interested in investing their time and resources in reaching top levels of organizations than men. Women are less committed to their work and career Women quit their job more often Women are not able to devote as much time to their careers, and are more likely to quit their jobs, thereby hindering their progress  burden of child-care and household work. Women are less educated Potential Causes of Poor Representation of Women in Leadership Discrimination Discrimination: women, and members of other non dominant groups, are placed at a disadvantage not based on their abilities or actions, but based on other non-job-related factors. Sexual harassment. Potential Causes of Poor Representation of Women in Leadership Gender stereotypes Women have to fulfill two contradictory roles and expectations, those of being a woman and those of being a leader (Eagly and Karau, 2002). Being a leader requires forceful behaviors that are more masculine (e.g. being proactive and decisive) than feminine (being kind and not appearing too competent). But, women who are more masculine are often not liked and not considered effective (Powell, Butterfield, and Parent, 2002) Men particularly expect women to account in ways that are stereotypically feminine, and evaluate them poorly when they show the more masculine characteristics typically associated with leadership. Potential Causes of Poor Representation of Women in Leadership Glass ceiling Women and minorities face a glass ceiling – invisible barriers and obstacles that prevent them from moving to the highest levels of organizations (Arfken, Bellar, and Helms, 2004) Cultural factors such as going to lunch with the “right” group, playing sports, being members of certain clubs… Solutions Organizations and leaders to create, value, and maintain a multicultural organization where discrimination is not tolerated. Multiculturalism aims at inclusiveness, social justice, affirmation, mutual respect, and harmony in a pluralistic world. The benefits of building a multicultural organization go beyond women and minority groups; they extend to all those who are different, including those from another culture. Training and education can help people become aware of their biases, understand their own and others’ cultural point of view, and better accept differences. Factors in Becoming a Multicultural Organization Questions ? 

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