For internal use only

A. QUESTIONS

Answer the questions about the reading.

1) What is the biosphere?

2) What is a biome?

3) Why does terrestrial biomes vary geographically from the tropics through the

arctic?

4) What is an ecosystem?

5) What are the major parts of an ecosystem?

B. TRUE-FALSE

Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false.

1) _ Plant formations do not include associated animal life.

2) __

3)

4)

5)

The major driving force in an ecosystem is solar energy.

Inputs into the ecosystem do not include carbon dioxide or

nitrogen.

The term ecosystems was invented by Sir Arthur George Tansley.

A grassland is not an ecosystem.

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S IN POLLUTION CONTROL 69 
B. TRUE-FALSE 
Write T if the sentence is true and F if it is false. 
1) Many waterways and urban atmospheres are still contaminated 
with the less visible but often hazardous chemical pollutants. 
2) Although damage from pollution goes down, the cost of pollution 
control go up rapidly. 
3) The advanced wastewater treatment system at South Lake Tahoe 
does not produce any chemical sludge. 
4) In reality, costs and damages resulting from pollution are very 
high. 
5) Of three methods of pollution control mentioned, the conversion to 
clean energy sources is the most efficient in minimizing the effects 
of industrial activity on people and the environment. 
VOCABULARY 
Choose the best word from the box for each of the following sentences put it 
in the correct form. 
clog hazardous visible contaminate correspond 
proportionally rely convert sludge dispose 
1) This drain is …………… with dead leaves. 
2) The government has prohibited the import of …………… chemicals. 
3) The hills were barely …………… through the mist. 
4) A lot of our drinking water is now heavily ……………. 
5) The written record of our plans does not …………… to what was actually 
said. 
6) Farmers pay …………… less for water than urban ratepayers. 
7) Nowadays we ……………increasingly on computers to regulate the flow of 
traffic in the town. 
8) They have developed a new process for …………… waste into usable fuel. 
9) Some …………… was found in the bottom of the tank. 
10) He thought that was a better way of …………… of household waste. 
70 ENGLISH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 
WORD STUDY 
A. -OUS, -LIKE 
In English, we can add the suffix -ous and -like to some nouns to make adjec- 
tives. Words that end in -ous mean “full of something.” Here is an example: 
Our classroom is very spacious. (full of space) 
Words that end in -like mean “similar to,” or “like.” Here is an example: 
The painting that Simon made is very lifelike. 
Spelling Note: If a noun ends in silent e, drop the e before adding the suffix -ous. 
There are no spelling changes when you add the suffix -like. 
EXERCISE 
Add the correct suffix to each noun in the chart. 
-ous -like 
noun adjective 
joy …………………………… 
fame …………………………… 
danger …………………………… 
poison …………………………… 
noun adjective 
life ……………………………… 
war ……………………………… 
child ……………………………… 
Now choose the best adjective to complete each sentence. 
1) Some plants are very ………………………… to eat. In fact, if you eat a 
……………………… plant, you could become sick or even die. 
2) Holidays are usually ………………………… times. People don’t have to 
work, and everyone celebrates and is happy. 
3) Albert Einstein is a ………………………… scientist. Most people in the 
world know who he was. 
4) Eskimo carvings are very …………………………. They look exactly like 
living animals. 
5) In the 1930s Germany began to take ………………………… actions. Then 
in 1939 it attacked Poland and started a war. 
6) When an adult does something that a child might do, people say he or she is 
…………………………. 
UNIT10 : PROBLEMS IN POLLUTION CONTROL 71 
B. WORD FORMS 
Study the words in the list. Notice how they are related to each other. Then 
choose the best word to complete each sentence. Use a word from line 1 in 
sentence 1, and so on. 
Verb Noun Adjective 
1) die death dead 
2) decorate decoration — 
3) — cruelty cruel 
4) describe description descriptive 
5) breathe breath — 
6) compute computer / computation — 
7) reserve reservation — 
8) revolt revolution revolutionary 
9) know knowledge — 
10) connect connection connected 
1) President John F. Kennedy is …………………………. He 
………………………… in 1963. Thousands of people went to his funeral. 
2) In Canada and the United States, many people ………………………… a tree 
with lights and colorful decorations for Christmas. 
3) Amnesty International tries to stop ………………………… to prisoners in 
all countries. In many places, prisoners have terrible lives of pain and 
suffering. 
4) For your homework tonight, write a ………………………… of your home 
town. Tell how it looks, where you like to go, and why you like it. 
5) When people swim under water, they must hold their 
…………………………. Fish can breathe under water, but humans cannot. 
6) If you have a small calculator, you can ………………………… your grocery 
bill while you are in the store. 
7) Next month Kei is going on a trip to New York. He already made his plane 
…………………, so he is very excited. 
8) Thirteen colonies participated in the ………………………… War against 
England. They became the United States of America. 
9) The more you study, the more your ………………………… increases. 
10) Maria is going to Julie’s house tonight to help her ………………………… 
her new computer. Julie doesn’t know how to do it by herself. 
72 ENGLISH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 
C. WORD FORMS 
This exercise is just for fun, and it is difficult. See if you can figure out the 
meanings of these words and use the correct word in each sentence. 
commercialized multiplicity oversimplification undereducated 
discouraged non-warlike programmer unrecognizable 
1) Paula dressed in strange clothes and put a lot of makeup on her face for a 
party. She was completely ………………………… No one knew who she 
was! 
2) One student said that his native country nationalized the oil companies 
because people were stealing the oil. This is only part of what really 
happened. This explanation is an ………………………… of the situation. 
3) There is a ………………………… of problems in Third World countries, 
such as poor living conditions, few jobs, and very little medical care for 
people. 
4) Another problem in Third World countries is that most of the people are 
……………………… because they quit school at an early age to get jobs. 
5) Carl is a computer ………………………… for a large company. He writes 
programs for businesses and industries. 
6) Christmas has become very ………………………… in the United States. 
Marketing experts make a lot of money because of this. 
7) Don’t be ………………………… if you can’t do this exercise. The words are 
very difficult! 
STRUCTURE STUDY 
SUBJECT-AUXILIARY INVERSION 
If a negative adverb or adverbial expression is put at the beginning of a clause for 
emphasis, it is usually followed by auxiliary verb + subject. 
Under no circumstances can we cash checks. 
Not until he received her letter did he fully understand the depth of her 
feelings. 
Hardly had I arrived when trouble started. 
Not only did we lose our money, but we were nearly killed. 
Seldom have I seen such a remarkable creature. 
No sooner had I closed the door than somebody knocked. 
UNIT10 : PROBLEMS IN POLLUTION CONTROL 73 
EXERCISE 
Rewrite these sentences beginning with the words in brackets. 
1) I had hardly closed my eyes when the phone rang. (Hardly …) 
2) We no sooner sat down in the train than I felt sick. (No sooner …) 
3) There has never been so much protest against land mines. (Never …) 
4) I realized what had happened only later. (Only later …) 
5) You shouldn’t answer the door when I’m out in any circumstances. (In no 
circumstances …) 
6) You shouldn’t sign the document on any account. (On no account …) 
7) I have never seen such a big tree. (Never …) 
8) We are not taking applications for that position any longer. (No longer …) 
9) You can hardly ever see such a spectacular sight. (Hardly ever …) 
10) Billy does not only sings, but he also plays the piano and writes his own 
songs. (Not only …) 
In formal styles, if in an if-clause can be dropped and an auxiliary verb put before 
the subject. This happens with were, had and should. 
Were she my daughter, « (= If she were my daughter, «) 
Had I realized what you intended, « (= If I had realized «) 
Should you change your mind, « (=If you should change «) 
Had we not changed our reservations, « (=If we hadn¶t changed «) 
EXERCISE 
Rewrite these sentences beginning with the words in brackets. 
1) If the boss were to come in now, we would be in real trouble. (Were …) 
2) If he should be late, we’ll have to start without him. (Should …) 
3) If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam. (Had …) 
4) If I were rich, I would spend all my time traveling. (Were …) 
5) If my mother had been alive, she would have been 80 next year. (Had …) 
6) If you should run into Peter, tell him he owes me a letter. (Should …) 
7) If I hadn’t been so tired, I might have realized what was happening. (Had …) 
8) If her nose were a little shorter, she would be quite pretty. (Were …) 
9) If you should happen to finish early, give me a ring. (Should …) 
10) If Jane hadn’t helped me, I would have been in bad trouble. (Had …) 
74 ENGLISH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 
CONTENTS 
Unit 
Readin
g 
Word Study 
Language Focus 
Page
1 
Environment and 
Ecology 
- The Prefixes UN-, IM-, 
IN-, 
DIS-, NON- 
- The Suffixes -MENT, -
- The Passive 01 
2 
Biomes and 
Ecosystems 
- Compound Words 
- The Suffix -EN
- The 
Passive 
08 
3 
Energy and 
N t i t
- The Prefix RE- 
- Word Forms: Nouns (1)
- Word Forms: Nouns (2)
- The Causative 15 
4 
Imbalances 
- Word Form: Noun 
Endings 
- The Suffix -LESS 
- Relative 
Clauses 
24 
5 
Environmental 
Pollution 
- The Prefix OVER- 
- The Suffix -LY 
- Word Forms: Other 
Words with -LY
- Defining and 
Non-defining 
Relative 
Clauses
32 
6 
Types of Pollution 
- Word Forms: Adjectives
(1) 
- Word Forms: Adjectives
- Reduction of 
Relative 
Clauses 
39 
7 
Pollution Control 
- The Suffix -IZE 
- The Suffix -IVE 
- Word Forms
- 
 Adverbi
al 
46 
8 
Treatment Systems 
for 
- The Suffix -SHIP 
- The Prefix EN- 
- The Suffix -AGE 
- The Suffix -IST
- Reduction 
of 
Adverbi
al 
53 
9 
Treatment Systems 
for 
- Word Forms 
- The Suffix -Y 
- The Suffixes -Y, -ITY, -
TY 
- Reduction 
of 
Adverbi
al 
60 
10 
Problems in 
Pollution 
- The Suffixes -OUS, -
LIKE 
- Word Forms (1) 
- Subject- 
Auxiliary 
Inversion 
67 
 Contents 74 

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