Tiếng Anh - Research methodology course

We are now at Seminar Room/Undercroft Seminar Hall of Chancellor Complex.

For your safety, please observe the exit signs at the doors of this room/hall.

Should the alarm be activated, please remain calm. Our staff will investigate to confirm and give further instructions through the public address system.

Should there be an emergency, please leave the room/hall through the nearest door. Proceed to the Assembly Area which is located in front of this building and wait for further instructions from our staff.

To prevent any incident during evacuation, please be careful when using staircase to the Chancellor Complex Foyer.

Thank you.



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 to access the engine from all sidesRepetitive activityJob rotation, More workers can access engine.Ergonomic Hazards - VibrationErgonomic Hazards - PostureErgonomic HazardsErgonomics considerI. Physical aspectsBody size and shapeFitness and strengthPostureSenses e.g. vision, hearing, touchStresses and strains on muscles, joints and nervesErgonomic HazardsII. Psychological aspectsMental abilitiesPersonalityKnowledge and Experience	Ergonomic HazardsErgonomics solve physical problems (work surface high enough, adequate leg room), psychological as well as social problems (too much workload, unclear tasks, time pressures, inadequate training and poor social support)By evaluating people, their jobs, equipment, and working environment and the interaction between them, an ergonomist is able to design safe, effective and productive work systemsElectrical HazardsMany electrical hazards at home and workplace are caused by electrical overloads and faulty electrical appliances. For example, you can create potential hazards if you:Overload electrical outlets"Daisy-chain" power strips by plugging one into anotherUse adapters to plug three-prong cords into two-prong outletsUse extension cords as permanent wiringPlace electrical cords under carpets or across high-traffic areasUse broken or frayed electrical cordsFire caused by battery charger20 April 2006Fire at V3 fellow’s houseElectrical HazardsCommon consequences – electrocution e.g. About 5 workers are electrocuted every week.Takes very little electricity to cause harm. Significant risk of causing fires.Electrical HazardsThere are four main causes of electrical injuries.DirectElectrocution or death (due to electrical shock.)Electrical shockBurns Indirect FallsElectrical HazardsSeverity of the shock depends on:Path of current through the bodyAmount of current flowing through the body (amps)Duration of the shocking 	current through the bodyLOW VOLTAGE DOES NOT MEAN LOW HAZARDElectrical HazardsCurrents above 10 mA* can paralyze or “freeze” muscleCurrents more than 75 mA can cause a rapid, ineffective heartbeat -- death will occur in a few minutes unless a defibrillator is used 75 mA is not much current – a small power drill uses 30 times as much.Fire HazardsWhat causes fire?Mishandling of flammable materials and excess of heat.Unattended experimental worksOvernight running experimentRunaway reactionFire ChemistryOxygen.An ignition source.Fuel.Take away one of these needs and the fire does not exist.Fire ChemistryFire tetrahedron adds a fourth component - chemical chain reaction.Fire is an exothermic chemical reaction and this reaction generates heat.Chemical reactions in a fire break materials down into basic elements.Fire HazardsBurns.Oxygen depletion.Building damage.Heat.Smoke damage.Death.Hazard Identification is a systematic and proactive approach to identifying hazardsHazard Analysis includes recommendation of corrective actions.59Identifying HazardHAZARD ANALYSIS Detailed Hazard AnalysisInvolves application of analytical, inductive and deductive methods – HAZID, HAZOP, FMEA, QRA etc. Preliminary Hazard List (PHL)Walk-around InspectionChecklistJob Hazard Analysis (JHA)Job Safety Analysis (JSA)What-if AnalysisWalk-around InspectionHSE Physical Observations and Inspections on 22nd February 2012 Chemical Storage and LabelingHousekeepingLabeling (CPL regulations)Segregation based on the chemical properties i.e. flammable, oxidizer, toxic and corrosive compatibility.Expiry date (to check on its expiry date)ObstructionHSE Observations and Inspections on 22nd February 2012 61Walk-around InspectionWaste storage or chemical storage. Label and signage. Proper waste container neededCompress gas guarding. Need to have an individual guarding and cylinder cap at all time when not in use.62Safety ChecklistReference:   Checklist64Job Hazard/Safety Analysis (JHA/JSA)JHA/JSA is the application of the hazards and effects management process at the task levelidentifying and assessing the hazards of each element of the task anddefining appropriate controls and recovery measures.65Sample of JHA / JSA66JSA FormAccident/Near-miss ReportExamine the reports on previous accident or near-misses relevant to your workstation or labIdentify the actual and potential cause from the reportsInjury and illness historyExamine the types of injuries and illnesses plus the regularity and severity of them occurring in the workplace.Risk assessmentKnowledge sharing67Other Methods of Hazard IDRisk AssessmentWhat is a control?A control is a mechanism or process that minimises the risk of the hazard becoming actual so protects people, property or the environment from the identified hazard.69Controlling HazardRISK : Probability of hazard causing harmRISK = Probability x ConsequencesControl objective as mentioned is to eliminate or reduce the risk to an acceptable levelControl by eliminating or reducing the probabilityControl by reducing the consequencesThe hierarchy of risk control is useful in determining appropriate or interim risk control measures.Implementing controls is to get as many controls in place so the risk is reduced to as low as possible.70Controlling Hazard71Hierarchy of Control The order in which controls should be considered when selecting methods of controlling a risk.Elimination Substitution Isolation/Minimisation Engineering Controls Administrative Controls Provide Personal Protective Equipment EFFECTIVENESS72Controlling HazardUsing the Hierarchy of Risk ControlHazard = Example: Small raise/crack in pathwayElimination - Engage a contractor to repair the section of path – therefore completely eliminating the hazardSubstitution - Use a different path/walkway to get from A to BIsolation/Engineering - Rope the section of path off to employees/visitorsAdministration - Ensure all path users are aware of the hazard, paint the rise yellow. Display of warning signagePPE - Provide employees with knee and elbow padsMaterial Safety Data Sheet - special sheets that summarise all pertinent information about a specific chemical. Designed to provide users and emergency personnel with the proper procedures for handling or working with a particular substanceControlling Hazard: Chemical Hazard© Risza Rusli/UTP2012© Risza Rusli/UTP2012© Risza Rusli/UTP2012© Risza Rusli/UTP2012© Risza Rusli/UTP2012Removing the fuel, starving the fire of oxygen or cooling it below the combustion point may put out of fire.Fire Prevention is based on eliminating or minimizing one of the components of the “Fire Triangle”.NOFIREFUELHEATAIRThe broken triangle: The removal of any one element extinguishes the fireControlling Hazard: Fire Hazard80Controlling Hazard: Fire HazardFire Extinguishment - ConceptBased on the chemistry, fire could be extinguished when one of the triangle element is removedFire extinguisher could be used to put off fire based on the type of fire:Fire Extinguishing: All Purpose WaterRemoves heat Use on CLASS A firesPressurized waterPressure gauge presentCO2 - inert gas: a medium that reduces concentration of oxygen or fuel vapor in air to the point where combustion is impossible. Use on CLASS B and CLASS C firesHard, plastic nozzleFire Extinguishing: Carbon DioxideAirborne powder interrupts the chemical chain reaction. Powder also melts when it contacts a hot surface, sealing the oxygen away from the fuel.Use on CLASS A, CLASS B, and CLASS C fires.Fine powder under pressure.Pressure gauge presentFire Extinguishing: Multi-Purpose Dry ChemicalIf You Are Inside a Building on Fire Stay low if there is smoke in the area. Crawl, if possible, towards an egress point/doorFeel doors before opening - if hot to the touch, find another avenue.Close doors behind you upon leaving.If trapped in an area, close the door, use available material to pack under the threshold openings, and call or signal for help.Controlling Hazard: Electrical HazardsReduction of Electrical HazardsGroundingOne conductor of the circuit is connected to the earth. Provides conducting path between equipment an earthBondingConnect 2 pieces of equipment by a conductor. Reduce possibility of sparkingBoth may be used for entire electrical system87Controlling Hazard: Ergonomics Hazards – Manual HandlingBack injuries due to the lifting of heavy loads are very commonControlling Hazard: Ergonomics Hazards – Good PostureViewing distance between the operator's eyes and the screen should be around 350 to 600 millimeters for reading text of normal font sizeLighting levels ranging from 300 to 500 lux are appropriate for most computer desk work.Simple physical exercises to relaxReduction of Electrical HazardsProtective EquipmentWorkers must be well equip with PPE: Rubber boots, rubber gloves etcInterlocks and TagsAutomatically break the circuit when an unsafe situation is detected.Tags inform workers of dangers Regular InspectionControlling Hazard: Electrical HazardsScheduled Waste DisposalAll scheduled wastes must be properly disposed off and in a safe manner to protect human health, safety and the environment Scheduled Waste Categories (Env. Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 1989 – First Schedule) SW1 – Metal and metal bearing wastes e.g. wastes containing arsenic, lead, cadmium, etc. SW2 - Waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) or polychlorinated triphenyls (PCT) e.g. asbestos, waste catalysts etc. SW3 - Waste containing principally organic constituents which may contain metals and inorganic materials e.g. spent lubricant oil, acid sludge etc. SW4 - Waste which contain either inorganic or organic constituents e.g. spent alkalis containing heavy metals, spent oxidising agent etc. SW5 – Other wastes: Any residues from treatment or recovery of scheduled wastesScheduled Waste DisposalDetail Information:Read SW Standard Operating Procedures (SOP): LFSULabelling Packaging ReferenceSW UTP Procedure: HSE DeptScheduled Waste DisposalConclusionTragedies are preventableSafe practice, Assess HazardsAdhere to rules & regulationsFor a safer, meaningful quality of life..

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