Phân từ 1 (the participles)

B. CHỨC NĂNG CỦA PHÂN TỪ

I. ĐỂ TẠO THÀNH CÁC THÌ TRONG TIẾNG ANH

1. HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ- PRESENT PARTICIPLE

 Active:

Being P2: I am studying English

Having P2

 Passive

Being P2: English is being spoken

Having been P2

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PHÂN TỪ 1 (THE PARTICIPLES) 
A. HÌNH THỨC: 
HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ- PRESENT 
PARTICIPLE 
QUÁ KHỨ PHÂN TỪ- PAST PARTICIPLE 
 Nguyên mẫu + ing 
 Ví dụ: working, loving, sitting 
 Quá khứ phân từ của động từ có quy tắc 
được tạo thành bằng cách thêm đuôi ed 
hoặc d vào nguyên mẫu. 
 Ví dụ : worked, loved. 
 Các động từ bất qui tắc 
Ví dụ: Spent, built. 
B. CHỨC NĂNG CỦA PHÂN TỪ 
I. ĐỂ TẠO THÀNH CÁC THÌ TRONG TIẾNG ANH 
1. HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ- PRESENT PARTICIPLE 
 Active: 
Being P2: I am studying English 
Having P2 
 Passive 
Being P2: English is being spoken 
Having been P2 
2. QUÁ KHỨ PHÂN TỪ- PAST PARTICIPLE 
 V-ed 
 Irregular Verbs 
II. NHƯ TÍNH TỪ: 
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V-ING + N Active ED/P2 + N  Passive 
 Running water (nước đang chảy) 
 Floating wreckage (các mảnh thuyền vỡ 
nổi lềnh bềnh) 
 Dripping taps (vòi nước nhỏ giọt) 
 Leaking pipes (ống nước bị nứt, rò rỉ) 
 The updated news 
 Stolen money (tiền bị đánh cắp) 
 Broken glass (cái ly vỡ/ kính vỡ) 
 A written report (một bản báo cáo viết 
tay) 
 Tired drivers (các tài xế mệt mỏi) 
 Blocked roads (các con đường bị kẹt/ 
phong tỏa) 
 The film is interesting 
(Chủ động- gây hứng thú) 
 The film interests me 
 He is a boring man 
(Chủ động- Người gây chán) 
 He bores me 
 I am interested in the film 
(Bị động- bị hứng thú) 
 I’m bored with him 
(Bị động- Bị chán bởi Anh ấy) 
III. RÚT GỌN HAI CÂU CÓ CÙNG CHỦ NGỬ 
1. HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ - CHỦ ĐỘNG 
 Hành động diễn ra liên tục. 
She opened the door. She saw him crying. 
 Opening the door, she saw him crying. 
 Nhấn mạnh dạng hoàn thành, xảy ra trước một hành động khác. 
They finished their homework, they went out. 
 Having finished their homework, they went out. 
2. QUÁ KHỨ PHÂN TỪ- BỊ ĐỘNG 
She was purnished by her father. She cried. 
 Purnished by her father, she cried. 
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IV. KHI ĐỘNG TỪ THỨ HAI LÀ MỘT PHẦN CỦA HÀNH ĐỘNG THỨ NHẤT, HOẶC LÀ 
HỆ QUẢ CỦA NÓ, CHÚNG TA CÓ THỂ DIỄN ĐẠT HÀNH ĐỘNG THỨ HAI BẰNG 
MỘT HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ 
She went out, slamming the door. 
(Cô ta đi ra ngoài, đóng sầm cửa lại) 
He fired, wounding one of the bandits. 
(Anh bắn một phát làm bị thương một tên cướp) 
I fell, striking my head against the door and cutting it. 
(Tôi té, va đầu vào cánh cửa và bị tét đầu) 
Note: Phân từ không cần thiết phải có cùng chủ từ với động từ thứ nhất. 
The plane crashed, its bombs exploding as it hit the ground. 
(Chiếc máy bay rớt, bom của nó nổ tung khi nó chạm đất) 
V. MỘT HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ THAY THẾ CHO MỆNH ĐỀ PHỤ 
Hiện tại phân từ có thể thay thế cho cấu trúc: 
As/ since/ because + chủ từ + động từ (= bởi vì) để giải thích cho hành động theo sau. 
Knowing that he wouldn’t be able to buy food on his journey he took large supplies with 
him 
(Biết rằng không thể mua thức ăn trong chuyến đi của mình được anh ta đem rất nhiều 
lương thực) 
= As he knew. (Vì anh ta biết.) 
VI. RÚT GỌN MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ 
1. CHỦ ĐỘNG V-ING 
The man who is sitting over there is my father 
 The man sitting over there is my father 
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2. BỊ ĐỘNG  P2 
Have you ever read any novel which was written by Marc Levy? 
 Have you ever read any novel written by Marc Levy? 
The newspaper which was editted by Jane was well-known. 
 The newspaper editted by Jane was well-known. 
C. BÀI TẬP LUYỆN 
1. Write the participles for the following verbs. 
 present participle past participle perfect participle 
work 
go 
come 
2. Decide which form is correct (present participle or past participle). 
1. The documentary was rather________________ 
2. Everybody was _______________ to hear the news. 
3. ________________to New York, I met a_______________ TV presenter. 
4. ________________in the fifteenth century, this house is one of the oldest in this area. 
5. The children were sitting on the floor_______________ with their toys. 
3. Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a present participle. 
1. She was talking to her friend and forgot everything around her. 
→ 
2. Since we watch the news every day we know what's going on in the world. 
→ 
3. They are vegetarians and don't eat meat. 
→ 
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4. The dog wagged its tail and bit the postman. 
→ 
5. While she was tidying up her room she found some old photos. 
→ 
6. He was a good boy and helped his mother in the kitchen. 
→ 
7. As they didn't have enough money they spent their holidays at home last year. 
→ 
8. The man was sitting in the cafe. He was reading a paper. 
→ 
9. Since I didn't feel well I didn't go to the cinema. 
→ 
10. She walked home and met an old friend. 
→ 
4. Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a past participle. 
1. I have a cat that is called Tari. 
→ 
2. The dinner was more expensive than they had expected. 
→ 
3. He was accused of murder and arrested. 
→ 
4. She was shocked by the bad news and burst into tears. 
→ 
5. The event is organised by our team and will surely be a great success. 
→ 
6. The film is based on real events and tells the story of a reporter. 
→ 
7. She was born in Hollywood and knows all the famous movie stars. 
→ 
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8. The car was taken to the garage. It was repaired within an hour. 
→ 
9. She was admired by everyone and began to grow arrogant. 
→ 
10. He was dumped by his girlfriend and felt really lousy. 
→ 
KEY 
1. Write the participles for the following verbs. 
 present participle past participle perfect participle 
work Working Worked Having Worked 
go Going Gone Having Gone 
come Coming Come Having Come 
2. Decide which form is correct (present participle or past participle). 
1. The documentary was rather interesting. 
2. Everybody was shocked to hear the news. 
3. Flying to New York, I met a well-known TV presenter. 
4. Built in the fifteenth century, this house is one of the oldest in this area. 
5. The children were sitting on the floor playing with their toys. 
3. Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a present participle. 
1. She was talking to her friend and forgot everything around her. 
→ Talking to her friend she forgot everything around her. 
2. Since we watch the news every day we know what's going on in the world. 
→ Watching the news every day we know what's going on in the world. 
3. They are vegetarians and don't eat meat. 
→ Being vegetarians they don't eat meat. 
4. The dog wagged its tail and bit the postman. 
→ Wagging its tail the dog bit the postman. 
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5. While she was tidying up her room she found some old photos. 
→ Tidying up her room she found some old photos. 
6. He was a good boy and helped his mother in the kitchen. 
→ Being a good boy he helped his mother in the kitchen. 
7. As they didn't have enough money they spent their holidays at home last year. 
→ Not having enough money they spent their holidays at home last year. 
8. The man was sitting in the cafe. He was reading a paper. 
→ The man was sitting in the cafe reading a paper. 
9. Since I didn't feel well I didn't go to the cinema. 
→ Not feeling well I didn't go to the cinema. 
10. She walked home and met an old friend. 
→ Walking home she met an old friend. 
4. Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a past participle. 
1. I have a cat that is called Tari. 
→ I have a cat called Tari. 
2. The dinner was more expensive than they had expected. 
→ The dinner was more expensive than expected. 
3. He was accused of murder and arrested. 
→ Accused of murder he was arrested. 
4. She was shocked by the bad news and burst into tears. 
→ Shocked by the bad news she burst into tears. 
5. The event is organised by our team and will surely be a great success. 
→ Organised by our team the event will surely be a great success. 
6. The film is based on real events and tells the story of a reporter. 
→ Based on real events the film tells the story of a reporter. 
7. She was born in Hollywood and knows all the famous movie stars. 
→ Born in Hollywood she knows all the famous movie stars. 
8. The car was taken to the garage. It was repaired within an hour. 
→ Taken to the garage the car was repaired within an hour. 
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9. She was admired by everyone and began to grow arrogant. 
→ Admired by everyone she began to grow arrogant. 
10. He was dumped by his girlfriend and felt really lousy. 
→ Dumped by his girlfriend he felt really lousy. 

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