How input-Enhanced authentic videos support english listening comprehension: a discussion from an interactionist perspective

With the light that literature has shed on the merits of authentic videos, this paper aims to

foreground two video input enhancement activities, namely annotating and captioning and argue

that when embedded in authentic videos, annotations and captions aid EFL learners’ vocabulary

acquisition and thus English listening comprehension. To this end, annotations and captions are

discussed on the theoretical grounds of Multimodality and the Interactionist Theory of Second

Language Acquisition (SLA). The paper concludes with implications for language teachers as to

the use of input-enhanced authentic videos for educational purposes in the listening classroom.

Keywords: listening comprehension, authentic videos, input enhancement, multimodality,

interactionist theory

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g to the fact 
that the L2 word is connected to the image and L1 
verbal subsystem existing in the learner’s mind. 
This can be further illustrated from Figure 5, that 
is by the time listeners hear the word “the Celts” 
and the image depicting these tribes pop up on the 
screen, the L1 translation “người xen-tơ” allows 
them to assimilate “the Celts” with its meaning 
thanks to their consciousness of the L1 and visual 
cues. Captions provide half of this route, in this 
regard, as far as keyword captions are concerned. 
This means that when hearing and seeing the 
captioned word and the corresponding image on 
the screen, listeners make an interconnection and 
thus the form-meaning mapping. In fact, literature 
has proved that watching videos with keyword 
captions made it easier for learners to understand 
the content for decreased cognitive load which 
would otherwise be heavy under full caption 
condition (Guillory, 1998). 
Above all, the described forms of annotations 
and captions result in interactive experiences 
between the learners and the computer rather 
than between the learners and native speakers 
as originally stipulated by Interactionist theory 
of SLA. Put it differently, they constitute a 
technological platform for the learners to interact 
with enhanced inputs and benefit from them for 
lexical acquisition and comprehension of aural 
texts (Chapelle, 2003). 
Figure 4: Annotation of a question Figure 5: Annotation of “the Celts”
111KHOA HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ QUÂN SỰNo. 19 (5/2019)
The departure point for this paper is that authentic 
videos are beneficial for second language learners 
in listening comprehension, fundamentally 
thanks to genuine situations and linguistic 
and paralinguistic elements they provide. On 
this premise, the paper revisits annotation and 
caption as two input enhancement activities 
that can be performed on authentic videos, and 
argues that they further aid learners’ linguistic 
gains and thus listening comprehension abilities. 
From its discussion grounded on the theories of 
Multimodality and Interactionist SLA, the paper 
arrives at the following practical implications for 
language teachers who intend to use authentic 
videos in their listening classroom. 
[1] Videos should be opted for with the 
perception that their authenticity is not reduced on 
any level. 
[2] Annotations should expand from 
explanations and/or definitions of individual words/
phrases to posing of questions for prior knowledge 
activation and comprehension scaffolding as 
well. When annotations are intentionally aimed at 
individual lexical items, they should be done so in 
L1 as opposed to L2. 
[3] Captions should be supplied in key words 
rather than in full for optimal learning experiences. 
Perhaps, an experimental study is needed in the future 
to genuinely test the effect of these suggestions./. 
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Tóm tắt: Với việc các nghiên cứu trước đã chỉ ra lợi ích của video đời thực đối với kỹ năng 
nghe hiểu Tiếng Anh, bài viết này chứng minh rằng chú thích và phụ đề khi được đưa vào video 
đời thực sẽ giúp người học cải thiện hơn nữa vốn từ vựng và kỹ năng nghe hiểu của mình. Bài 
viết cũng sẽ thảo luận tác dụng của hai hình thức này trên cơ sở lý thuyết về Đa phương thức và 
Thuyết tương tác của Lý thuyết thụ đắc ngôn ngữ thứ hai. Ở phần cuối là một số gợi ý cho giáo 
viên khi sử dụng video đời thực có chú thích và phụ đề vào mục đích giảng dạy. 
Từ khoá: nghe hiểu, video đời thực, chú thích, phụ đề, đa phương thức, lý thuyết tương tác 
Ngày nhận bài: 20/4/2019; ngày sửa chữa: 14/5/2019; ngày duyệt đăng: 17/5/2019

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