Eleventh graders’ actual use of english listening learning strategies at duong van duong high school

Abstract: It is undeniable that listening comprehension is a fundamental skill in the process of

acquiring a language and plays a crucial part in communication although it is not an easy task which

requires both background knowledge and linguistic understanding. Therefore, language learners are

supposed to employ listening learning strategies to facilitate the process of decoding oral input. This study

aimed at examining if the eleventh graders at Duong Van Duong high school used English listening learning

strategies and then exploring the frequency of the students’ use of these strategies. The present study is a

mixed-methods research project in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected through

closed-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview with the participation of 425 respondents and 20

interviewees. The results of the study indicated that a vast number of the participants employed listening

learning strategies at different levels of frequency which were classified into three main groups, namely

high use (e.g. cognitive and affective strategies), moderate use (e.g. metacognitive and social strategies) and

low use (e.g. compensation and memory strategies).

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128 D.M. Tham, et al. / VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, Vol.35, No.1 (2019) 114-130
TÌM HIỂU VIỆC SỬ DỤNG CHIẾN LƯỢC HỌC NGHE 
TIẾNG ANH CỦA HỌC SINH LỚP 11 
TẠI TRƯỜNG THPT DƯƠNG VĂN DƯƠNG
Dương Mỹ Thẩm1, Trần Thị Hoàng Trang2, Trần Quốc Thao3
1. Trường Đại học Nông Lâm Tp. Hồ Chí Minh, 
Linh Trung, Thủ Đức, Tp. Hồ Chí Minh, Việt Nam
2. Trường THPT Dương Văn Dương, 
Số 39 đường số 6, Phú Xuân, Nhà Bè, Tp. Hồ Chí Minh, Việt Nam
3. Trường Đại học Công nghệ Tp. Hồ Chí Minh,
 475A Điện Biên Phủ, Phường 25, Bình Thạnh, Tp. Hồ Chí Minh, Việt Nam
Tóm tắt: Nghe hiểu là một trong bốn kỹ năng quan trọng nhất khi học bất kì ngôn ngữ nào. 
Nó đòi hỏi người học thông thạo cả kiến thức cơ bản và kiến thức ngôn ngữ học. Nhiều nghiên 
cứu đã chỉ ra rằng các chiến lược nghe có thể giúp người học ngôn ngữ xử lý được các thông tin 
khi giao tiếp. Vì thế, nghiên cứu này nhằm tìm hiểu xem học sinh lớp 11 tại Trường THPT Dương 
Văn Dương có sử dụng các chiến lược nghe trong quá trình học nghe tiếng Anh hay không và sau 
đó tìm hiểu sâu hơn về mức độ sử dụng các chiến lược nghe. Nghiên cứu sử dụng cả dữ liệu định 
lượng và định tính. Cụ thể, có 425 học sinh trả lời bảng câu hỏi và sau đó, 20 trong số họ được 
đề nghị tham gia phỏng vấn bán cấu trúc. Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy các đối tượng nghiên cứu 
sử dụng các nhóm chiến lược nghe tiếng Anh với mức độ khác nhau và được chia thành 03 nhóm 
chính: nhóm sử dụng nhiều (gồm chiến lược nhận thức và cảm xúc), nhóm sử dụng vừa phải (gồm 
chiến lược siêu nhận thức và xã hội) và nhóm sử dụng ít (gồm chiến lược bù đắp và trí nhớ). 
Từ khóa: nghe hiểu tiếng Anh, học sinh lớp 11, chiến lược nghe, ngữ cảnh Việt Nam
APPENDIX A
STUDENT QUESTIONNAIRE 
This questionnaire belongs to a study named “Eleventh Graders’ Actual Use of Listening 
Learning Strategies at Duong Van Duong High School”. We highly appreciate it if you could 
spend your time answering following questions. Your responses will greatly contribute to the 
success of this paper. Your replies will be only used for survey purposes. Thank you very much 
for your cooperation. 
I. Personal information
Please provide your own information by putting a cross (X) in the box or write down your 
information. 
1. Gender: o Male o Female
2. How long have you learnt English? – About _________________years. 
129VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, Vol.35, No.1 (2019) 114-130
II. Actual use of listening learning strategies 
1. Did you employ listening learning strategies in the English class?
o Yes o No o I don’t know
(If yes, please continue to answer the rest of the questionnaire)
2. How often do you employ listening learning strategies?
Please put a cross (X) and rate yourself based on the given statements using the following scale:
1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = occasionally, 4 = frequently, 5 = always
1. MEMORY STRATEGIES
1 I link my background knowledge with what being heard or group the information to restore them. 1 2 3 4 5
2 I use semantic mapping to learn the word school and word order. 1 2 3 4 5
2. COGNITIVE STRATEGIES
3
While listening, I focus on grammar and structures to understand 
the text better and repeat information several times to facilitate my 
retention.
1 2 3 4 5
4 I try to grasp the main ideas before focusing on other small details. 1 2 3 4 5
5 I translate, transfer or make the contrast between English and 
Vietnamese words or expressions to understand the target language.
1 2 3 4 5
6 I write down what I hear and summarize my notes to understand listening texts better. 1 2 3 4 5
3. COMPENSATION STRATEGIES
7 To understand unfamiliar words I hear, I make guesses by using linguistic clue such as word order and word stress. 1 2 3 4 5
8 To understand unfamiliar words I hear, I make guesses by using situational context such as noise and speaker’s tone of voice. 1 2 3 4 5
4. METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES
9 I decide in advance whether I should be attentive to the whole task or particular details. 1 2 3 4 5
10 When listening, I had clear goals (listen for main ideas, listen for detail ideas or listen for identifying speakers’ attitudes) 1 2 3 4 5
11 I self – monitor the listening process to avoid making mistakes I had before and evaluate how well the task has been done. 1 2 3 4 5
5. AFFECTIVE STRATEGIES
12 I try to relax or breathe deeply to keep calm before listening English. 1 2 3 4 5
13 Before listening, I tell myself that I can finish the task. 1 2 3 4 5
14 I share my feeling with my friends and encourage myself to concentrate on listening English even when I can’t hear anything. 1 2 3 4 5
6. SOCIAL STRATEGIES
15 I ask the teacher or my friends to clarify what I am not clear. 1 2 3 4 5
16 After listening, I exchange the information with friends and cooperate to check comprehension and answer questions. 1 2 3 4 5
THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION!
130 D.M. Tham, et al. / VNU Journal of Foreign Studies, Vol.35, No.1 (2019) 114-130
APPENDIX B
SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW 
The frequency of employing listening learning strategies
1. How often do you use Memory Strategies for your listening learning? If yes, how are these 
strategies useful for your learning? If no, why aren’t they employed to improve your listening skill?
2. Do you frequently use Cognitive Strategies for your listening learning process? Which of 
the following techniques are often utilized for your listening? 
3. Do you often exploit Compensation Strategy (guessing intelligently based on linguistics 
and other clues) to facilitate your listening learning? If yes, can you give some examples how is 
the strategy helpful for you? If not, what are your obstacles?
4. Have you employed Metacognitive Strategies with high frequency? If yes, specify your 
situations? If no, why? 
5. How frequently do you use relaxation, deep breathing, or mediation to reduce your pressure 
before or while listening? If yes, what benefits do you get from these techniques? If no, why do 
you pay no or little attention to them?
6. Do you often ask for clarification or Cooperate with peers to accomplish listening tasks? In 
your opinion, are these techniques useful for your learning? Why or why not?

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