Các yếu tố ảnh hưởng đến dạy và học phát âm Tiếng Anh

Phát âm giống như người bản ngữ là một trong những nhiệm vụ rất quan trọng nhưng cũng khá

phức tạp đối với cả người dạy và người học. Do đặc tính phức tạp của ngôn ngữ, phát âm đang

được xem là một kỹ năng cần được chú trọng nhiều hơn trong việc giảng dạy ngôn ngữ ở các

trường học và cơ sở đào tạo. Trong phạm vi bài báo này, người viết sẽ nhấn mạnh tầm quan trọng

của phát âm tiếng Anh. Bên cạnh đó, dựa trên một số nghiên cứu cũng như lý thuyết liên quan về

phát âm, người viết sẽ phân loại các yếu tố ảnh hưởng đến quá trình dạy và học phát âm tiếng Anh,

đồng thời đưa ra một số đề xuất nhằm cải thiện chất lượng dạy và học phát âm hiện nay.

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d conditions for 
students to practise. On the other hand, teachers 
should encourage students to practise and create 
opportunities for them to practise (Cele-Murcia, 
Briton, and Goodwin (1996). 
In EFL settings, especially where students 
have little opportunity to surround themselves 
with native input in the target language, the 
burden will fall more on the teachers to provide 
an adequate model of the target language, and to 
ascertain that students have opportunities outside 
the class (e.g, in the language laboratory or foreign 
language learning centers) to experience samples 
of the authentic oral discourse of native speakers 
(Cele-Murcia, Briton, and Goodwin, 1996, p.17). 
Teachers’ teaching methods have a big influence 
on learners’ capability to absorb knowledge from 
the teachers (Kenworthy, 1997). Good teaching 
methods can inspire learners greatly during their 
learning process. They seem to be excited to take 
lessons rather than do them reluctantly. On the 
contrary, poor teaching methods may discourage 
or depress learners. That is to say, teachers’ 
performance in class plays a decisive part in 
learners’ learning. 
Many EFL teachers think pronunciation 
is too complicated and difficult to teach and 
ignore the importance of teaching students good 
pronunciation. There is a fact that, however, the 
students’ pronunciation mostly depends on the 
teachers’ pronunciation. Therefore, it is important 
and necessary that teachers should improve their 
pronunciation first.
Apart from teacher-related elements, other 
objectives ones such as classroom facilities, 
curriculum, etc. may affect pronunciation teaching 
and learning (Brown, 2007). Indeed, teachers 
find hard to deliver their lectures if the teaching-
supported facilities do not work properly and 
learners might feel depressed as a result of this 
interruption. Furthermore, learners may get 
confused if the curriculum is not suitable for their 
levels which might be too difficult or too easy. 
It is very necessary for teachers and learners 
of English to identify and deal with the elements 
affecting the English pronunciation teaching and 
learning. In reality, teachers play a crucial role 
in students’ learning because pronunciation is 
one of the significant aspects of foreign language 
teaching. It must be also borne in mind that 
teachers are the models for their students. Thus, 
first of all, they should have good pronunciation; 
otherwise they can mislead their students. That 
is to say, the teachers should spend more time on 
teaching pronunciation. 
Besides, during the pronunciation teaching, 
teachers should always come up with different 
teaching methods that are suitable for different 
groups of students who might differ in age, 
aptitude, personality, and motivation. Also, 
teachers should take much notice of how to help 
learners overcome the influences of their mother 
tongue which may take a long time to be improved. 
Creating opportunities for learners to increase 
their exposure to English pronunciation should be 
teachers’ regular job. 
In the overall process of pronunciation 
teaching, it is difficult to teach without practice, 
but students may feel bored and depressed for 
drilling an individual sound for a long time. 
Therefore, it is important to combine practice 
pronunciation exercises with more interesting 
ones. Apart from equipping learners with 
knowledge, teachers should help students 
establish an appropriate goal of pronunciation 
and try to improve their learning motivation, 
which are important parts in language teaching. 
Learners should find the most suitable learning 
method for themselves under the guidance of 
teachers and have enough exposure to the target 
language. Moreover, learners can learn from 
each other, outside the class or without teachers’ 
presence. So as to make learners become more 
efficient at learning pronunciation, they should 
set themselves specific goals and have definite 
motivation in learning as well.
This article emphasized some important 
elements influencing the English pronunciation 
teaching and learning from a comprehensive 
perspective. In the case of internal elements, the 
writer believes that the younger the learners start to 
learn L2, the better they can master the language, 
and this also relates to the brain development, 
ear perception, and innate phonetic ability. Many 
researchers suggest that, positive attitudes and 
opened-mind will promote learners’ pronunciation 
development and let them have a native-like accent. 
Also, if learners have high motivation to learn 
pronunciation and set up an appropriate goal for 
pronunciation, they will master the target language 
pronunciation much better. For external elements, 
native language is seen as the key factor which 
has a big influence on the acquisition of English 
pronunciation. The learners will more easily 
pronounce the target language sounds if their native 
language has the similar sounds with the target 
language. Exposure is another important affecting 
element that includes the attitude the learners 
respond to opportunities to use the target language.
 Excelling at pronunciation benefits us loads 
in communication, particularly intelligibility. The 
better we pronounce the better people understand 
us. It is unquestionable that these affecting elements 
have different influences in pronunciation. Some 
of these elements are unchangeable, for example, 
it is impossible for us to change the age and 
phonetic ability of the learners. It is apparent that 
the influence of age is undeniable in language 
learning process. However, some elements are 
changeable such as some educational factors./.
Avery, P. & Ehrlich, S. (1997), Preliminary 
Considerations in the Teaching of 
Pronunciation, TESL Center, London, 
Brown, H. D. (2007), Teaching by Principles: An 
Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, 
Pearson Education, White Plains, New York.
Buranavityawut, N. (2000), Factors which Affect 
Pronunciation Learning, Retrieved September 
10, 2009, from <
Carroll, J. B. (1992), The prediction of success 
in intensive foreign language training. 
InR. Glaser (Ed.), Training, Research, and 
Education (p.87-136), University of Pittsburgh 
Press, Pittsburgh. 
Celce-Murcia, N., Briton, M. D., & Goodwin, 
J. M. (1996), Teaching Pronunciation: A 
Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers 
of Other Languages, Cambridge University 
Press, Cambridge.
Cenoz, J. & Garcia Lecumberri, M. L. (1999), The 
acquisition of English Pronunciation: learners’ 
views, International Journal of Applied 
Linguistics, 9 (1), 3-17.
Dornyei, Z. (1998), Motivation in second and 
foreign language learning, Language Teaching, 
31, 117-135.
Gardner, R. C. & Lambert, W. E. (1992), Attitudes 
and Motivation in Second Language Learning, 
Newbury House, Rowley.
Hamers, J. F. (1994), Age in Second Language 
Acquisition, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon.
Kelly, L. G. (1999), 25 Centuries of Language 
Teaching, Newbury House, Rowley.
Kenworthy, J. (1997), Teaching English 
Pronunciation, Longman, London.
 Krashen, S. D. (1992), Principles and Practice 
in Second Language Acquisition, Pergamon 
Institute, Oxford.
 Lenneberg, E, H. (1997), The Biological 
Foundations of Language, Willey, New York.
Lund, K. (2003), Age and Accent, Retrieved 
September 8, 2009, from <
Abstract: Sounding like native speakers when studying a foreign language seems to be one of 
important but rather complicated tasks for both teachers and learners. Due to the complexity of 
languages, pronunciation has been considered as a skill which needs to be paid special attention 
to in language teaching in schools and training centers. In the scope of this article, the writer will 
emphasize the importance of English pronunciation teaching and learning. Besides, based on 
previous studies as well as theories concerning pronunciation, the writer will categorize elements 
that influence the English pronunciation teaching and learning as well as make some suggestions 
on the issue.
Keywords: pronunciation teaching and learning, native language, pronunciation 
Received: 6/6/2018; Revised: 14/6/2018; Accepted for publication: 20/6/2018
Mayberry, R. & Lock, E. (2003), Age constraints 
on first versus second language acquisition: 
Evidence for linguistic plasticity and 
epigenesist, Brain and Language, 87(1), 369-
Morley, J. (1998), Trippingly on the tongue: Putting 
serious speech/pronunciation instruction back 
in the TESOL equation, ESL Magazine, 1, 20-
Nation, I. S. P. & Newton, J. (2009), Teaching 
ESL/EFL Listening and Speaking, Routledge, 
New York.
Pennington, M. C. & Richards, J. C. (1996), 
Pronunciation revisited, TESOL Quarterly, 
20(2), 207-225.
Piske, T., MacKay, I., & Flege, J. E. (2001), Factors 
affecting degree of foreign accent in an L2: A 
review, Journal of Phonetics, 29, 191-215.
Senel, M. (2006), Suggestions for beautifying the 
pronunciation of EFL learners in Turkey, Journal 
of Language and Linguistic Studies, 2(1), 111-
Toohey, K. (2001), Disputes in child L2 learning, 
TESOL Quarterly, 35, 257-278.
Van den Noort, M. W. M. L., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, 
K. (2006), Foreign language proficiency 
and working memory capacity, European 
Psychologist, 11(4), 289-296.

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